Writing is a challenge for students with learning disabilities. (Graham, Harris, & McKeown, 2013) Limitations in strategies, skills, knowledge, and motivation cause these difficulties.
In the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model, instructional strategies are combined with methods for regulating behavior (Harris, 1982). Our goal is to teach students the techniques they need to write while supporting their motivation. Considering each student’s needs is at the heart of this approach. From Grade 2 to secondary school, it can be used with whole classes, small groups, and individual students.
What is SRSD?
The Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model combines instructional strategies with a means to self-regulate. The goal is to teach the strategies that students need in order to write, while supporting them to be motivated.
“Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) models are designed for instruction of academic skills and knowledge of material” (Tripp et al., 691). The SRSD model includes five components: task analysis, planned strategy instruction, peer coaching or verbal practice, self-monitoring via student responses on graphic organizers or planners, and finally generalization/transfer activities which options include homework assignments and posttests.
However, because the SRSD model was originally designed for older children who already knew how to read and wrote, its use in a pre-kindergarten classroom may not be appropriate.
Components of SRSD
“Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) consists of 5 components: task analysis, planned strategy instruction, peer coaching or verbal practice, self-monitoring via student responses on graphic organizers or planners, and generalization/transfer activities. Student needs may be assessed through, observations, process and product, goal attainment scaling, no plans to plans, and portfolio assessment.
A planning tool used in the SRSD model that focuses on breaking down a task into smaller, manageable pieces.
What is the purpose of SRSD?
Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) is an instructional approach designed to help students learn, use, and adopt the strategies used by skilled writers. The process of SRSD involves students learning and using a set of processing strategies developed through the study of expert writing practices. It encourages students to monitor, evaluate, and revise their writing, which in turn reinforces self-regulation skills and independent learning.
Goals of SRSD
One goal of SRSD instruction is for children to develop processes for evaluating their own work so that they can engage in strategic revision based on feedback from themselves; teachers also play a role in this process as well. At the end of each writing session, for example, students should be encouraged to ask themselves whether or not they feel as though they have met their writing goals, and what changes might be needed to meet those goals.
If a student’s writing does not meet his or her goal, he or she can use the strategies that have been taught to determine how to revise for improvement.
What are the basic needs?
In order to accomplish this:
- First need to teach students what self-regulated strategy development is and its basic components strategy instruction, strategy application/use, and strategy integration.
- Second, students should be given opportunities throughout the year for applying strategies to their own work through regular feedback from both teacher and peers.
- Finally, assessment of self-regulated learning processes should occur frequently so that students’ progress in developing these skills may also be assessed. One way of assessing a student’s progress is through self-monitoring.
How can SRSD help?
SRSD can be used to help students at all levels of writing ability, from beginners to more advanced writers. Since SRSD focuses on teaching students how to use processes for monitoring their own work, it is especially helpful for students who are learning English as a second language or have disabilities that make it difficult or impossible for them to understand feedback from their teachers. Furthermore, the use of self-regulated learning will encourage independent learning in all children. This approach has been proven effective with learners both below age level and above grade level in school settings.
Planned Strategy Instruction
Teachers break down each part of a strategy instruction for students to understand.
Peer Coaching/Verbal Practice
Peers help classmates learn strategies by modeling them and giving positive feedback when they are done correctly.
Self-monitoring via student responses on graphic organizers or planners
Students have their own system they can follow when completing tasks in order to monitor their learning.
The last part of the SRSD model, where students can practice using their new skills in different situations.
What is self regulation?
Self-regulation has been defined as “the possession of cognitive strategies for organizing one’s approach to learning tasks” (Pressley et al., 323). Self-regulating requires the learner to not only self-monitor but also self-evaluate
Self-regulated strategy development is the process in which students are actively engaged in learning how to do something rather than simply being told or shown how. The SRSD model focuses on strategy instruction, motivation, and uniqueness of the student.
Self regulated strategy
The Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model was created by Harris & Pressley (1987) and has its basis in self-instruction. Self-instruction refers to teaching yourself or learning how to do something independently with or without an instructor. The SRSD model is based on three principles: “self-regulated learning, self-regulated strategy development, and task analysis”.
Students learn how to monitor their own success through self-assessment when they have been taught strategies which will help them become independent learners. Students may develop a portfolio in which they keep samples of their work to show what they have learned
Generalization/Transfer activities are “the last part of the SRSD model, where students can practice using their new skills in different situations” (Ross et al., 361). This type of assessment focuses on what students can do with their learning rather than how well they did. It is important that students are able to apply the strategies they were taught to various settings outside of school in order for them to become self-regulated learners
Role of teacher
The teacher plays an active role when planning strategy instruction. The goal is for students to learn different strategies by working WITH their teacher. When it comes to generalization and transfer activities, the teacher should allow for student choice so that they are engaged in the process.
It has been found that teaching students different strategies based on their strengths helps them to become motivated because it gives them something concrete about themselves. They are able to see certain qualities in themselves which they are able to work on. “Task analysis is an individualized strategy that can be used in SRSD, where teachers organize instruction into steps for each learner.”
What are the six stages of self-regulated strategy development?
Stage 1: Developing Awareness and Motivation
The first stage in self-regulated strategy development is developing awareness and motivation. In this stage, the teacher creates awareness among students about the strategy they are about to learn. The teacher explains the purpose of the strategy and the benefits of using it. Students are also motivated to use the strategy through modeling and positive reinforcement.
Stage 2: Discussing and Modeling the Strategy
The second stage involves discussing and modeling the strategy. The teacher and students discuss the steps involved in the strategy and how to use it. The teacher models how to use the strategy effectively, and students practice using it with guidance.
Stage 3: Memorizing the Strategy
In the third stage, students memorize the strategy. Students learn the steps involved in the strategy and practice using it until they can apply it independently.
Stage 4: Support and Feedback
In this stage, students receive support and feedback from the teacher. The teacher monitors students’ use of the strategy and provides feedback to help them improve their performance.
Stage 5: Independent Performance
In the fifth stage, students use the strategy independently. Students apply the strategy in their learning, and the teacher provides additional support and feedback.
Stage 6: Generalization and Transfer
The final stage involves generalization and transfer. Students apply the strategy in new situations and transfer the strategy to other academic tasks. The teacher encourages students to use the strategy in their learning and provides opportunities for them to apply it in various contexts.